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Encyclopedia > Banana
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Banana

Banana plant
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Musaceae
Genus: Musa
Species

Hybrid origin; see text Look up banana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (876x1280, 620 KB) A banana tree on Banana Island in Luxor, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... Families see text The Zingiberales are an order of flowering plants that includes many familiar plants like ginger, cardamom, turmeric, myoga, and also banana and arrowroot. ... Genera Musa(banana, plantain, abacá) Musella Ensete The Musaceae is a family of monocotyledonous plants that includes the bananas and plantains. ... Species See text Musa is one of three genera in the family Musaceae; it includes the bananas and plantains. ...

Banana is the common name used for herbaceous, cultigenic plants in the genus Musa, which, because of their size and structure, are often mistaken for trees. Bananas are green when they are picked, yellow when they are ripe, and brown or black when they rot. Bananas are cultivated for their fruit which bear the same name, and to a lesser extent for the production of fibre and as ornamental plants. Bananas are of the family Musaceae. Globally, bananas rank fourth after rice, wheat and maize in human consumption; they are grown in 130 countries worldwide, more than any other fruit crop. Bananas are native to tropical southeastern Asia but are widely cultivated in tropical regions. In popular culture and commerce, "banana" usually refers to the soft, sweet "dessert" bananas that are usually eaten raw. The bananas from a group of cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit are generally used in cooking rather than eaten raw. Bananas may also be dried and ground into banana flour. It has been suggested that Trivial name be merged into this article or section. ... Cultigen is the name for organisms, especially cultivated plants like the edible banana, not known to have a wild or uncultivated counterpart in nature. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species See text Musa is one of three genera in the family Musaceae; it includes the bananas and plantains. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is 1) a rank or 2) a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Musa(banana, plantain, abacá) Musella Ensete The Musaceae is a family of monocotyledonous plants that includes the bananas and plantains. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice is two species of grass (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and in Africa. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Corn redirects here. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...


The main or upright growth is called a pseudostem, which when mature, will obtain a height of 2–8 m (varies between different cultivars), with leaves of up to 3.5 m in length. Each pseudostem produces a single bunch of bananas, before dying and being replaced by a new pseudostem. The base of the plant is a rhizome (known as a corm). Corms are perennial, with a productive lifespan of 15 years or more. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Ginger rhizome A rhizome is, in botany, a usually underground, horizontal stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. ... A corm is a short, vertical, swollen underground stem of a plant (usually one of the monocots) that serves as a storage organ to enable the plant to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (estivation). ...


The term banana is applied to both the plant and its elongated fruit (technically a false berry) which grow in hanging clusters, with up to 20 fruit to a tier (called a hand), and 3-20 tiers to a bunch. The total of the hanging clusters is known as a bunch, or commercially as a "banana stem", and can weigh from 30–50 kg. The fruit averages 125 g, of which approximately 75% is water and 25% dry matter content. Bananas are a valuable source of Vitamin A, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, and potassium. Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Remnants of the floral parts are clearly evident on these immature banana fruits, demonstrating that the fruit is developing from an inferior ovary A false berry or epigynous berry is an accessory fruit found in certain plant species with an inferior ovary. ... It has been suggested that Retinol be merged into this article or section. ... Pyridoxine Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Vitamin C is a nutrient required in very small amounts to allow a range of essential metabolic reactions in the body. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ...


Although the wild species have fruits with numerous large, hard seeds, virtually all culinary bananas have seedless fruits. Bananas are classified either as dessert bananas (meaning they are yellow and fully ripe when eaten) or as green cooking bananas. Almost all export bananas are of the dessert types; however, only about 10-15% of all production is for export, with the U.S. and EU being the dominant buyers. Seedless fruits are something of a paradox, as fruits are usually defined in a botanical sense as mature ovaries containing seeds. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Contents

Properties

Banana, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy 90 kcal   370 kJ
Carbohydrates     22.84 g
- Sugars  12.23 g
- Dietary fiber  2.6 g  
Fat 0.33 g
Protein 1.09 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.031 mg   2%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.073 mg   5%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.665 mg   4%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.334 mg  7%
Vitamin B6  0.367 mg 28%
Folate (Vit. B9)  20 μg  5%
Vitamin C  8.7 mg 15%
Calcium  5 mg 1%
Iron  0.26 mg 2%
Magnesium  27 mg 7% 
Phosphorus  22 mg 3%
Potassium  358 mg   8%
Zinc  0.15 mg 1%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors; most cultivars are yellow when ripe but some are red or purple-ish. The ripe fruit is easily peeled and eaten raw or cooked. Depending upon cultivar and ripeness, the flesh can be starchy to sweet, and firm to mushy. Unripe or "green" bananas and plantains are used in cooking and are the staple starch of many tropical populations. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2 or vitamin G, is an easily absorbed, water-soluble micronutrient with a key role in maintaining human health. ... For the band, see Niacin. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life. ... Pyridoxine Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... Vitamin C is a nutrient required in very small amounts to allow a range of essential metabolic reactions in the body. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Atomic mass 30. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ...


Most production for local sale is of green cooking bananas and plantains, as ripe dessert bananas are easily damaged while being transported to market. Even when only transported within their country of origin, ripe bananas suffer a high rate of damage and loss.


The commercial dessert cultivars most commonly eaten in temperate countries (species Musa acuminata or the hybrid Musa × paradisiaca, a cultigen) are imported in large quantities from the tropics. They are popular in part because being a non-seasonal crop they are available fresh year-round. In global commerce, by far the most important of these banana cultivars is 'Cavendish', which accounts for the vast bulk of bananas exported from the tropics. The Cavendish gained popularity in the 1950s after the previously mass produced cultivar, Gros Michel, was destroyed by Panama disease, a fungus which attacks the roots of the banana plant. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... // In biology, hybrid has two meanings. ... Cultigen is the name for organisms, especially cultivated plants like the edible banana, not known to have a wild or uncultivated counterpart in nature. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... The most common variety of banana used in baking, fruit salads, fruit compotes, and to complement foods. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Gros Michel, or Big Mike, was an early export cultivar of banana which was wiped out in the 1950s by Panama disease, a fungus which attacks the roots of the banana plant. ... Panama disease, also known as Fusarium wilt, is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. ...


It is common for fruit exports to contain minor traces of chemicals from their home countries, as has been the recent case within the Russian village of Kholuy. Minor traces of the radioactive substance trininite were spread by the wind over the town's main banana field; however, no serious problems occured. Also, the common case for fruit exports is for them to be dominated by a single or very few cultivars. The most important properties making 'Cavendish' the main export banana are related to transport and shelf life rather than taste; major commercial cultivars rarely have a superior flavour compared to the less widespread cultivars. Export bananas are picked green, and then usually ripened in ripening rooms when they arrive in their country of destination. These are special rooms made air-tight and filled with ethylene gas to induce ripening. Bananas can be ordered by the retailer "ungassed", however, and may show up at the supermarket still fully green. While these bananas will ripen more slowly, the flavour will be notably richer, and the banana peel can be allowed to reach a yellow/brown speckled phase, and yet retain a firm flesh inside. Thus, shelf life is somewhat extended. The flavour and texture of bananas are affected by the temperature at which they ripen. Bananas are refrigerated to between 13.5 and 15 °C (57 and 59 °F) during transportation. At lower temperatures, the ripening of bananas permanently stalls, and the bananas will turn grey. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula CH2CH2. ...

Certain banana cultivars turn red or purplish instead of yellow as they ripen.
Certain banana cultivars turn red or purplish instead of yellow as they ripen.

It should be noted that Musa × paradisiaca is also the generic name for the common plantain, a coarser and starchier variant not to be confused with Musa acuminata or the Cavendish variety. Plantains have all but replaced the Cavendish in markets dominated by supply-side logistics. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1811 KB) Summary English: Deutsch: Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Banana Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1811 KB) Summary English: Deutsch: Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Banana Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Species Musa × paradisiaca A big load of plantains in Masaya, Nicaragua Cooking Plantains (pronounced plan-TINS) are a kind of plantains that are generally used for cooking, as contrasted with the soft, sweet banana varieties (which are sometimes called dessert bananas). ...


In addition to the fruit, the flower of the banana plant (also known as banana blossom or banana heart) is used in Southeast Asian, Bengali and Kerala (India) cuisine, either served raw with dips or cooked in soups and curries. The tender core of the banana plant's trunk is also used, notably in the Burmese dish mohinga, Bengali and Kerala cooking. Bananas fried with batter is a popular dessert in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. Banana fritters can be served with ice-cream as well. Bananas are also eaten deep fried, baked in their skin in a split bamboo, or steamed in glutinous rice wrapped in a banana leaf in Myanmar where bunches of green bananas surrounding a green coconut in a tray is an important part of traditional offerings to the Buddha and the Nat (spirit)s. The juice extract prepared from the tender core is used to treat kidney stones. A Phalaenopsis flower A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Bengali cuisine is a style of food preparation that originated in Bengal, a region in the northeast of South Asia which is now divided between the independent country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. ...   (IPA: ; ) is a state on the Western Coast of south-western India. ... Mohinga (Burmese: ) is considered by many to be the national dish of Myanmar, formerly Burma. ... Pisang goreng (Malay: fried banana) is a banana fried in batter and eaten as a snack food. ... Glutinous rice ( or Oryza glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice, waxy rice, botan rice, mochi rice, and pearl rice) is a type of short-grained Asian rice that is especially sticky when cooked. ... Media:Example. ... A nat is one of thirty-seven spirits that are worshipped by Bamar in conjunction to Buddhism. ...

Traditional offerings of bananas and coconut at a Nat spirit shrine in Myanmar
Traditional offerings of bananas and coconut at a Nat spirit shrine in Myanmar

The leaves of the banana are large, flexible, and waterproof; they are used in many ways, including as umbrellas and to wrap food for cooking. Chinese zongzi (bamboo leaves are more commonly used where available) and Central American tamales are sometimes steamed in banana leaves, and the Hawaiian imu is often lined with them. Puerto Rican "pasteles" are boiled wrapped and tied inside the leaf. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 1086 KB) Traditional offerings of bananas and coconut at a Nat (spirit) shrine in Myanmar I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 1086 KB) Traditional offerings of bananas and coconut at a Nat (spirit) shrine in Myanmar I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... An umbrella is a collapsible canopy that protects a person from rain or sun. ... The zongzi, or rice dumpling, is a traditional Chinese food. ... Map of Central America Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. ... A meal of a tamale and squash soup A tamale or tamal (from Nahuatl tamalli) is a traditional Latin American food consisting of a corn meal dough filled with meats, cheese (post-colonial), and sliced chiles or any preparation according to taste. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Roasted puaa Kalua is a traditional Hawaiian cooking method that utilizes an imu, or underground oven. ...


Banana chips are a snack produced from dehydrated or fried banana or, preferably, plantain slices, which have a dark brown colour and an intense banana taste. Bananas have also been used in the making of jam. Unlike other fruits, it is difficult to extract juice from bananas because when compressed a banana simply turns to pulp. Banana chips are chips that are made of bananas. ... Jam from berries Jam is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with certain fruits or vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin. ...


Seeded bananas (Musa balbisiana), considered to be one of the forerunners of the common domesticated banana, are sold in markets in Indonesia.


It is reported that in Orissa, India, juice is extracted from the corm and used as a home remedy for the treatment of jaundice. In other places honey is mixed with mashed banana fruit and used for the same purpose. Orissa   (Devanagari: उड़ीसा) is a state situated in the east coast of India. ... A corm is a short, vertical, swollen underground stem of a plant (usually one of the monocots) that serves as a storage organ to enable the plant to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (estivation). ... A home remedy is a treatment or cure for a disease or other ailment that employs certain foods or other common household items. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: icteric), is a yellowing of the skin, conjunctiva (clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body (or the body of another red blooded animal). ... A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones. ...


Trade

Women in Belize sorting bananas and cutting them from bunches.
Women in Belize sorting bananas and cutting them from bunches.
Top Banana Producing Nations - 2005
(in million metric tons)
Flag of India India 16.8
Flag of Brazil Brazil 6.7
 China 6.4
Flag of Ecuador Ecuador 5.9
Flag of Philippines Philippines 5.8
 Indonesia 4.5
 Costa Rica 2.2
Flag of Mexico Mexico 2.0
Flag of Thailand Thailand 2.0
Flag of Colombia Colombia 1.6
Flag of Burundi Burundi 1.6
World Total 72.5
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation[1]

Bananas and plantains constitute a major staple food crop for millions of people in developing countries. In most tropical countries green (unripe) bananas used for cooking represent the main cultivars. Cooking bananas are very similar to potatoes in how they are used. Both can be fried, boiled, baked or chipped and have similar taste and texture when served. One green cooking banana has about the same calorie content as one potato.[citation needed] Image File history File links Banana_sorting. ... Image File history File links Banana_sorting. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Costa_Rica_(state). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Burundi. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Cooking is the act of applying heat to food in order to prepare it to eat. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... Plantains frying in vegetable oil. ... Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to a temperature such that its vapor pressure is above that of the surroundings. ... Baking is the technique of cooking food in an oven by dry heat applied evenly throughout the oven. ... Taste is one of the traditional five senses and refers to the ability to detect of flavor of foodstuffs and other substances (e. ... A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. ...


In 2003, India led the world in banana production, representing approximately 23% of the worldwide crop, most of which was for domestic consumption. The four leading banana exporting countries were Ecuador, Costa Rica, Philippines, and Colombia, which accounted for about two-thirds of the world's exports, each exporting more than 1 million tons. Ecuador alone provided more than 30% of global banana exports, according to FAO statistics. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that FAOSTAT be merged into this article or section. ...

Bananas in a grocery store
Bananas in a grocery store

The vast majority of producers are small-scale farmers growing the crop either for home consumption or for local markets. Because bananas and plantains will produce fruit year-round, they provide an extremely valuable source of food during the hunger season (that period of time when all the food from the previous harvest has been consumed, and the next harvest is still some time away). It is for these reasons that bananas and plantains are of major importance to food security. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 1397 KB) Bananas, December 2006 by photographer Steve Hopson. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 1397 KB) Bananas, December 2006 by photographer Steve Hopson. ... Traditional Eastern European Farmer Woman. ... Food security is a term used in development and humanitarian aid. ...


Bananas are among the most widely consumed foods in the world. Most banana farmers receive a low unit price for their produce as supermarkets buy enormous quantities and receive a discount for that business. Competition amongst supermarkets has led to reduced margins in recent years which in turn has led to lower prices for growers. Chiquita, Del Monte, Dole and Fyffes grow their own bananas in Ecuador, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Honduras. Banana plantations are capital intensive and demand high expertise so the majority of independent growers are large and wealthy landowners of these countries. This has led to bananas being available as a "fair trade" item in some countries. Supermarket produce section A supermarket is a store that sells a wide variety of goods including food and alcohol, medicine, clothes, and other household products that are consumed regularly. ... Chiquita Brands International Inc. ... Fresh Del Monte Produce (NYSE: FDP) is a major producer and distributor of fruit and other agricultural products. ... Dole Food Company, Inc. ... Fyffes plc is a public limited company of Ireland, originally established in the United Kingdom, specialising in fresh food products. ... Certified Fairtrade quinoa producers in Ecuador. ...


The banana has an extensive trade history beginning with the founding of the United Fruit Company (now Chiquita) at the end of the nineteenth century. For much of the 20th century, bananas and coffee dominated the export economies of Central America. In the 1930s, bananas and coffee made up as much as 75 percent of the region's exports. As late as 1960, the two crops accounted for 67 percent of the exports from the region. Though the two were grown in similar regions, they tended not to be distributed together. The United Fruit Company based its business almost entirely on the banana trade, as the coffee trade proved too difficult for it to control. The term "banana republic" has been broadly applied to most countries in Central America, but from a strict economic perspective only Costa Rica, Honduras, and Panama were actual "banana republics", countries with economies dominated by the banana trade. The United Fruit Company (1899–1970) was a major American corporation that traded tropical fruit (primarily bananas and pineapples) grown in Third World plantations and sold in the United States and Europe. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... A cup of coffee Coffee is a widely consumed beverage prepared from the roasted seeds—commonly referred to as beans—of the coffee plant. ... The 1930s (years from 1930-1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... The United Fruit Company (1899–1970) was a major American corporation that traded tropical fruit (primarily bananas and pineapples) grown in Third World plantations and sold in the United States and Europe. ... A Banana Republic store in The Grove, Los Angeles. ...


The countries of the European Union have traditionally imported many of their bananas from the former European island colonies of the Caribbean, paying guaranteed prices above global market rates. As of 2005 these arrangements were in the process of being withdrawn under pressure from other major trading powers, principally the United States. The withdrawal of these indirect subsidies to Caribbean producers is expected to favour the banana producers of Central America, in which American companies have an economic interest.


Cultivation

While the original bananas contained rather large seeds, triploid (and thus seedless) cultivars have been selected for human consumption. These are propagated asexually from offshoots of the plant. The plant is allowed to produce 2 shoots at a time; a larger one for fruiting immediately and a smaller "sucker" or "follower" that will produce fruit in 6–8 months time. The life of a banana plantation is 25 years or longer, during which time the individual stools or planting sites may move slightly from their original positions as lateral rhizome formation dictates. Latin Americans sometimes comment that the plants are "walking" over time. Polyploid (in Greek: &#960;&#959;&#955;&#955;&#945;&#960;&#955;&#972;&#957; - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... Asexual reproduction in liverworts: a caducuous phylloid germinating Asexual reproduction (also known as agamogenesis) is a form of reproduction which does not involve mitosis, haploid formation, or fertilization. ...

Banana corms.
Banana corms.

Cultivated bananas are parthenocarpic, which makes them sterile and unable to produce viable seeds. Lacking seeds, another form of propagation is required. This involves removing and transplanting part of the underground stem (called a corm). Usually this is done by carefully removing a sucker (a vertical shoot that develops from the base of the banana pseudostem) with some roots intact. However, small sympodial corms, representing not yet elongated suckers, are harder to transplant and can be left out of the ground for up to 2 weeks; they require minimal care and can be boxed together for shipment. Image File history File links Bananacorms. ... Image File history File links Bananacorms. ... A corm is a short, vertical, swollen underground stem of a plant (usually one of the monocots) that serves as a storage organ to enable the plant to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (estivation). ... In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpic literally means virgin fruit; the fruit develops without fertilization of ovules, therefore it is seedless. ... A corm is a short, vertical, swollen underground stem of a plant (usually one of the monocots) that serves as a storage organ to enable the plant to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (estivation). ...


In some countries, bananas are commercially propagated by means of tissue culture. This method is preferred since it ensures disease-free planting material. When using vegetative parts such as suckers for propagation, there is a risk of transmitting diseases (especially the devastating Panama disease).


Pests, diseases and natural disasters

While in no danger of outright extinction, the most common edible banana cultivar 'Cavendish' (extremely popular in Europe and the Americas) could become unviable for large-scale cultivation in the next 10-20 years. Its predecessor 'Gros Michel', discovered in the 1820s, has already suffered this fate. Like almost all bananas, it lacks genetic diversity, which makes it vulnerable to diseases, which threaten both commercial cultivation and the small-scale subsistence farming.[2][3] Major diseases include:

Banana bunches are sometimes encased in plastic bags for protection. The bags may be coated with pesticides.
Banana bunches are sometimes encased in plastic bags for protection. The bags may be coated with pesticides.
Inspecting bananas for fruit flies.
Inspecting bananas for fruit flies.
  • Panama Disease (Race 1) – fusarium wilt (a soil fungus). The fungus enters the plants through the roots and moves up with water into the trunk and leaves, producing gels and gums. These plug and cut off the flow of water and nutrients, causing the plant to wilt. Prior to 1960 almost all commercial banana production centered on the cultivar 'Gros Michel', which was highly susceptible to fusarium wilt. The cultivar 'Cavendish' was chosen as a replacement for 'Gros Michel' because out of the resistant cultivars it was viewed as producing the highest quality fruit. However, more care is required for shipping the 'Cavendish' banana and its quality compared to 'Gros Michel' is debated.
  • Tropical Race 4 - a reinvigorated strain of Panama Disease first discovered in 1992. This is a virulent form of fusarium wilt that has wiped out 'Cavendish' in several southeast Asian countries. It has yet to reach the Americas; however, soil fungi can easily be carried on boots, clothing, or tools. This is how Tropical Race 4 moves from one plantation to another and is its most likely route into Latin America. The Cavendish cultivar is highly susceptible to TR4, and over time, Cavendish is almost certain to be eliminated from commercial production by this disease. Unfortunately the only known defense to TR4 is genetic resistance.
  • Black Sigatoka - a fungal leaf spot disease first observed in Fiji in 1963 or 1964. Black Sigatoka (also known as Black Leaf Streak) has spread to banana plantations throughout the tropics due to infected banana leaves being used as packing material. It affects all of the main cultivars of bananas and plantains, impeding photosynthesis by turning parts of their leaves black, and eventually killing the entire leaf. Being starved for energy, fruit production falls by 50% or more, and the bananas that do grow suffer premature ripening, making them unsuitable for export. The fungus has shown ever increasing resistance to fungicidal treatment, with the current expense for treating 1 hectare exceeding US$1000 per year. In addition to the financial expense there is the question of how long such intensive spraying can be justified environmentally. Several resistant cultivars of banana have been developed, but none has yet received wide scale commercial acceptance due to taste and texture issues.
  • Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) - this virus is spread from plant to plant by aphids. It causes stunting of the leaves resulting in a "bunched" appearance. Generally, a banana plant infected with the virus will not set fruit, although mild strains exist in many areas which do allow for some fruit production. These mild strains are often mistaken for malnourishment, or a disease other than BBTV. There is no cure for BBTV, however its effect can be minimised by planting only tissue cultured plants (In-vitro propagation), controlling the aphids, and immediately removing and destroying any plant from the field that shows signs of the disease.

Even though it is no longer viable for large scale cultivation, 'Gros Michel' is not extinct and is still grown in areas where Panama Disease is not found. Likewise, 'Cavendish' is in no danger of extinction, but it may leave the shelves of the supermarkets for good if diseases make it impossible to supply the global market. It is unclear if any existing cultivar can replace 'Cavendish' on a scale needed to fill current demand, so various hybridisation and genetic engineering programs are working on creating a disease-resistant, mass-market banana. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2388x3465, 845 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Banana ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2388x3465, 845 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Banana ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... Download high resolution version (500x757, 118 KB)Image Number K11007-1: Aloun Farms owner Mike Sou (left) and field manager Joseph Liu Man Hin point out fruit flies hiding in a banana tree to entomologist Roger Vargas. ... Download high resolution version (500x757, 118 KB)Image Number K11007-1: Aloun Farms owner Mike Sou (left) and field manager Joseph Liu Man Hin point out fruit flies hiding in a banana tree to entomologist Roger Vargas. ... Panama disease, also known as Fusarium wilt, is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. ... Panama disease, also known as Fusarium wilt, is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. ... Loess field in Germany Soil horizons are formed by combined biological, chemical and physical alterations. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... u fuck in ua ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... Look up wilt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Gros Michel, or Big Mike, was an early export cultivar of banana which was wiped out in the 1950s by Panama disease, a fungus which attacks the roots of the banana plant. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Panama disease, also known as Fusarium wilt, is a banana plant disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. ... Boots is the name of at least five different albums and singles: Boots by Nancy Sinatra (1966) Boots by Mighty Gabby (1984) Boots by Condemned Eighty Four (2001) Boots by KMFDM (2002) Boots by Noe Venable (2003) It is also the name of a large chain of chemists in the... Men and women wearing suits, an example of one of the many modern forms of clothing (from the 1937 Chicago Woolen Mills catalog) Clothing is defined, in its broadest sense, as coverings for the torso and limbs as well as coverings for the hands (gloves), feet (socks, shoes, sandals, boots... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task. ... Black Sigatoka is a leaf spot disease of banana plants caused by fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Plantain is the common name for two very different plants. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Ripening is a process in fruit that causes them to become more edible. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... Families Adelgidae Aphididae Pemphigidae Phylloxeridae and several more Aphids (superfamily Aphidoidea) are small plant-sucking insects. ...


Australia is relatively free of plant diseases and therefore prohibits imports. When Cyclone Larry wiped out Australia's domestic banana crop in 2006, bananas became relatively expensive, due to low supply domestically, and laws prohibiting banana imports. Lowest pressure 915 hPa (mbar) or 27. ...

This article is a list of diseases of bananas and plantains (Musa spp. ...

Effects of banana diseases in East Africa

Tanzanian farmers with 92 kg (200 lb) bunch of FHIA-17 bananas.
Tanzanian farmers with 92 kg (200 lb) bunch of FHIA-17 bananas.

Most bananas grown worldwide are used for local consumption. In the tropics, bananas, especially cooking bananas, represent a major source of food, as well as a major source of income for smallholder farmers. It is in the East African highlands that bananas reach their greatest importance as a staple food crop. In countries such as Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda per capita consumption has been estimated at 450 kg per year, the highest in the world. Ugandans use the same word "matooke" to describe both banana and food. Image File history File links FHIA-17. ... Image File history File links FHIA-17. ...


In the past, the banana was a highly sustainable crop with a long plantation life and stable yields year round. However with the arrival of the Black Sigatoka fungus, banana production in eastern Africa has fallen by over 40%. For example during the 1970s, Uganda produced 15 to 20 tonnes of bananas per hectare. Today production has fallen to only 6 tonnes per hectare. Black Sigatoka is a leaf spot disease of banana plants caused by fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet. ...


The situation has started to improve as new disease resistant cultivars have been developed such as the FHIA-17 (known in Uganda as the Kabana 3). These new cultivars taste different from the traditionally grown banana which has slowed their acceptance by local farmers. However, by adding mulch and animal manure to the soil around the base of the banana plant, these new cultivars have substantially increased yields in the areas where they have been tried. In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local climate. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ...


The Rockefeller Foundation has started trials for genetically modified banana plants that are resistant to both Black Sigatoka and banana weevils. It is developing cultivars specifically for smallholder or subsistence farmers. The Rockefeller Foundation is a charitable organization based in New York City. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ...


Fibre

M. acuminata x balbisiana flower, partially opened.
M. acuminata x balbisiana flower, partially opened.

The banana plant has long been a source of fibre for high quality textiles. In Japan, the cultivation of banana for clothing and household use dates back to at least the 13th century. In the Japanese system, leaves and shoots are cut from the plant periodically to ensure softness. The harvested shoots must first be boiled in lye to prepare the fibres for the making of the yarn. These banana shoots produce fibres of varying degrees of softness, yielding yarns and textiles with differing qualities for specific uses. For example, the outermost fibres of the shoots are the coarsest, and are suitable for tablecloths, whereas the softest innermost fibres are desirable for kimono and kamishimo. This traditional Japanese banana cloth making process requires many steps, all performed by hand.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1521 KB) Description: Musa acuminata x balbisiana Source: self made Date: 2002-22-03 Author = --Ruestz 17:55, 30 May 2006 (UTC) 23. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1521 KB) Description: Musa acuminata x balbisiana Source: self made Date: 2002-22-03 Author = --Ruestz 17:55, 30 May 2006 (UTC) 23. ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... A traditional wedding kimono Japanese woman in a kimono, ca. ... Hakama worn by an aikidoka (left of the picture) An Edo-era kamishimo outfit, consisting of a kataginu (a sleeveless jacket with exaggerated shoulders) (left) and hakama (centre). ...


In another system employed in Nepal, the trunk of the banana plant is harvested instead, small pieces of which are subjected to a softening process, mechanical extraction of the fibres, bleaching, and drying. After that, the fibres are sent to the Kathmandu valley for the making of high end rugs with a textural quality similar to silk. These banana fibre rugs are woven by the traditional Nepalese hand-knotted methods, and are sold RugMark certified. A typical Nepalese house in the valley, made from cow dung and clay The Kathmandu valley, located in the Kingdom of Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus as well as the... Rugmark is a global non-profit-making organization that works to end illegal child labour in the carpet industry. ...


Banana fibre is also used in the production of banana paper. Banana paper is used in two different senses: to refer to a paper made from the bark of the banana tree, or paper made from banana fibre. ...


Popular culture

Banana peels

The depiction of a person slipping on a banana peel has been a staple of physical comedy for generations. A 1906 comedy record produced by Edison Records features a popular character of the time, "Cal Stewart", claiming to describe his own such incident, saying: Physical comedy is comedic performance relying mostly on the use of the body to convey humor. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Edison Records was the first record label, pioneering recorded sound and an important player in the early record industry. ... Cal Stewart, circa 1900. ...

I don't think much of a man what throws a bananer peelin' on the sidewalk, and I don't think much of a bananer what throws a man on the sidewalk, neether. ... my foot hit that bananer peelin' and I went up in the air, and cum down ker-plunk, and fer about a minnit I seen all the stars what stronomy tells about, and some that haint been discovered yit. Wall jist as I wuz pickin' myself up a little boy cum runnin' cross the street and he sed "Oh mister, won't you please do that agin, my mother didn't see you do it.

Stereotypes

  • Because of the stereotypical image of monkeys and apes eating bananas, they have been used for racist insults, such as throwing bananas at sports players of African descent.[5]
  • In the Asian community, a banana is a slang term which is used to describe an Asian person who acts like a white person (yellow on the outside, white on the inside).

For other uses, see Monkey (disambiguation). ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, which includes humans. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling Hate speech · Hate crime Lynching · Gay bashing Genocide · Holocaust Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing Pogrom · Race war Religious persecution Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism White/Black supremacy Hate groups · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism Womens/Universal suffrage Civil rights · Gay rights Childrens rights · Youth rights Policies Discriminatory... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... American white woman with red hair and blue eyes French white man Austrian white woman with blond hair In the context of basic English usage, the term White people (also white race or whites) is used to denote ... a human group having light-coloured skin, especially of European ancestry. ...

The arts

The Velvet Underground and Nico was The Velvet Undergrounds 1967 debut album. ... The Velvet Underground (sometimes abbreviated as The Velvets or VU) was an American rock band first active from 1965 to 1973. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bananas is a 17th studio album by the British band Deep Purple, released in 2003. ...

Symbols

Bananas are also humorously used as a phallic symbol due to similarities in size and shape. Mural of Mercury in Pompeii. ...


See also

Isoamyl acetate is an organic compound that is the ester formed from isoamyl alcohol and acetic acid. ... Banana messengers were agents sent on U.S. railroads to accompany shipments of bananas. ... Ensete is one of three genera of plants in the banana family, Musaceae. ... It has been suggested that Hallucinogenic effects of banana peels be merged into this article or section. ...

References

  1. ^ FAOSTAT: ProdSTAT: Crops. UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (2005). Retrieved on 09-12-2006.
  2. ^ "A future with no bananas?", New Scientist, 13 May, 2006. Retrieved on 09-12-2006. (in English)
  3. ^ Montpellier, Emile Frison. "Rescuing the banana", New Scientist, 8 February 2003. Retrieved on 09-12-2006. (in English)
  4. ^ Traditional Crafts of Japan - Kijoka Banana Fiber Cloth. Association for the Promotion of Traditional Craft Industries. Retrieved on 11-12-2006.
  5. ^ Green, Alan. "Society has to change - Barnes", BBC SPORT, 4 November, 2002. Retrieved on 09-12-2006. (in English)
  • FAO. Bananas Commodity notes: Final results of the 2003 season, 2004
  • Denham, T., Haberle, S. G., Lentfer, C., Fullagar, R., Field, J., Porch, N., Therin, M., Winsborough B., and Golson, J. Multi-disciplinary Evidence for the Origins of Agriculture from 6950-6440 Cal BP at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of New Guinea. Science, June 2003 issue.
  • Skidmore, T., Smith, P. - Modern Latin America (5th edition), (2001) New York: Oxford University Press)
  • Editors (2006). "Banana fiber rugs". Dwell 6 (7): 44.  Brief mention of banana fibre rugs
  • Leibling, Robert W. and Pepperdine, Donna (2006). "Natural remedies of Arabia". Saudi Aramco World 57 (5): 14.  Banana etymology, banana flour

External links

Look up Banana in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Banana

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...


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Bananas and plantains are today grown in every humid tropical region and constitute the 4th largest fruit crop of the world, following the grape, citrus fruits and the apple.
In Australia, bananas are planted on sunny hill sides at elevations of 200 to 1,000 ft (60 to 300 m) to avoid the cold air that settles at lower levels.
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